I have just started surgically installing implants. I have seen some cases involving grafting or bone augmentation where the membrane covering the graft was exposed and failure of the graft occurred. I have also seen cases where the membrane was exposed but the graft succeeded. Which graft materials can become exposed and still create a successful graft? Which membranes can become exposed and still have a successful graft? Are there graft materials that do not require a covering membrane?
Bookmark Leaving the membrane exposed: when is this possible?